Closer Protection

Foreword by
General Sir Rupert Smith KCB DSO OBE QGM

 

About the Author

 

Notes

 

About this Book

  • United Kingdom’s Official Secrets Act

  • DA-Notice

  • Pictorial Content

 

List of Abbreviations and Terminology

 

Preface

  • Topics Not Included

  • The Aim of this Book

  • The Responsibility for Another One’s Life

 

Introduction

  • Hollywood Representation – The Illusion of Competence

  • Specialists

  • The Role of Close Protection

 

Chapter 1

Historical Development of Bodyguarding & Close Protection

  • The 47 Ronin – A Lesson in Loyalty – The Ako Incident

  • British Military Elite Units and Civilian Police Close Protection

    • Special Air Service BG Course

    • Royal Military Police Close Protection Unit

Chapter 1 (Cont'd)

    • Royalty and Diplomatic Protection Department

  • Main Terrorist & Criminal Attacks – A Historical Snapshot 44BC – 1998

 

Chapter 2

Upper Echelons’ of Close Protection Operatives in the United Kingdom

  • British Government Assigned Close Protection

    • Government Intelligence & Support

    • Police Protection Command

    • SO1 Specialist Protection

    • SO6 Diplomatic Protection Group

    • SO14 Royalty Protection

    • The British Prime Minister and The Royal Family

    • The Special Escort Group (SEG)

    • British Diplomats and Military Commanders in High Risk Locations

 

Chapter 3

What Makes a Good Close Protection Operative?

  • Requirements & Attributes

  • THE BODYGUARD – how he stands – where he puts his hands

  • Minimum Age & Life Experience Requirements

  • Mental & Physical Fitness Requirements

  • Training & Selection Objectives

  • General Attitude and Bearing

  • Appearance and Blending In – The Basics

  • Appearance and Blending In – Operational

Chapter 4

Close Protection – The Basics

  • Personal Security

  • Personal Situational Awareness

    • The Colours of Awareness State – ‘Cooper’s Colours’

    • Situation awareness – Accept the threat exists

    • Avoid routine

    • Follow security procedures

    • Exercise common sense and initiative

    • Remain anonymous or show of strength

 

Chapter 5

Composition of a Close Protection Team

  • The Close Protection Team Leader

  • Second in Command

  • Personal Escort Section

    • Level One

      • Duties of the PES

      • Planning

    • Level Two (CAT - Counter Attack Team)

      • Composition

      • Equipment

      • Duties of the PES Level Two

      • Planning

  • Security Advance Party

    • Planning

    • Reconnaissance

    • Dress

    • Vehicles

    • Recce Reports

Chapter 5 (Cont'd)

    • Surveys

    • The Location

    • The Operation

  • CP Team Member Responsibilities

    • Team Q

    • Vehicles

    • Medical

    • Communications

  • Overall Team Member Responsibilities

    • Bodyguard

      • Role

      • Responsibilities

    • Personal Escort Section (Level 1)

      • Role

      • Responsibilities

    • Personal Escort Section (Level 2/ CAT)

      • Role

    • Security Advance Party

      • Role

      • Responsibilities

    • Residence Security Team

      • Role

      • Responsibilities

Chapter 6

The Role & Responsibilities of the Bodyguard

  • The Close Protection Team Bodyguard (CPT BG)

    • Role

  • The Individual Bodyguard (IBG)

  • Principles

  • Considerations

  • Pre-op Preparations

  • Appearance

  • Etiquette, Protocol and the Principal’s Staff

  • The Reputation of One is the Reputation of Many

  • Delusions of Grandeur

  • Outlook of CP from the Boss’ Perspective

 

Chapter 7

Threat, Risk & Vulnerability Assessments

  • Risk = Threat + Vulnerability

  • The Purpose of a Threat & Risk Assessment in a CP Environment

  • How do we Actually Quantify It?

    • Assets Identification

    • Threat Assessment

    • Risk Assessment

    • Vulnerability Assessment

    • Recommendations

  • Why is the Principal a Target?

  • The Surveillance Threat

Chapter 8

Operational Planning – ‘Could’ve. Should’ve. Would’ve’.

  • Why Do We Have A Plan?

  • Operational Planning Cycle

  • Notice of Intended Travel

  • Categories of Protection

  • Levels of Protection

 

Chapter 9

Residence & Estate Security

  • Residences of Principals

  • The ‘Four-D Package’

  • Outer Cordon

  • Intermediate Cordon

  • Inner Cordon

  • BG/ RST

  • Recommendations

  • Composition of the RST

  • Initial Actions by the CPTL

  • Actions by the RST (Non - Permanent Residences)

  • Actions by the RST (Permanent Residences)

  • Internal Features of a Residence

    • VIP Suite

    • Guest Rooms

    • Public Rooms

    • Staff Quarters

    • Ops Room & RST Accommodation

  • Residence Security – Worst Case Scenarios

    • Media Intrusion

    • Sniper

Chapter 9 (Cont'd)

    • Multiple Simultaneous Perimeter Breach

    • Residence Security Over-run – Multiple Hostiles in Grounds and Unsighted

    • Fight Through

    • Containment

 

Chapter 10

Fitness & Unarmed Combat Training

  • Physical Training

    • Physical Resilience & Mental Fortitude

    • Mobility & Physical Impairments

  • Close Protection Medical & Physical Fitness Assessments

    • The SIA Influence

    • The Drivers Medical Group

  • Unarmed Combat Training (Close Quarter Combat/ CQC)

    • Principles of CQC

    • Action Beats Reaction

    • Aspects of Conflict

    • Control & Restraint – It’s Place?

 

Chapter 11

Close Protection Communications

  • The Basis of all Operations and Planning

  • Team Comms

  • Radio

    • Wired

    • Wireless

    • One-Way Communication Systems

    • Full Duplex Communication

Chapter 11 (Cont'd)

    • Digital or Analogue

      • Hytera X1

    • Radio Voice Procedure

    • Carriage of Comms and Ancillaries

    • IPod Style Ear Buds

    • Transmitter

    • Mobile Phones

 

Chapter 12

Reconnaissance

  • Introduction

  • Conduct of Ops

  • SAP Briefing & Recce with Drivers

  • Liaison

  • Phots, Video & Mapping

  • PUP’s & DOP’s

  • Routes

  • Scheduled & Unscheduled Locations

  • Private & Commercial Air Terminals, POC’s

  • Hotels

  • Restaurants

  • Offices

  • Other Locations

  • Hospitals

  • Police Stations & Government Buildings

  • Local Crime/ Local Threats

  • Operational Movement in Detail

Chapter 13

Walking Drills Skills

  • Team & IBG Walking Skills – A Practical Consideration

    • Close Protection Operational Tactics, Techniques & Procedure

    • Prior knowledge available of the Boss’ presence in a given area by the threat – (scheduled or unscheduled)

    • Time of day and length of walk

    • Areas walking/ to be walked

    • A busy or quiet street scene and densely crowded areas

      • ‘The Elastic Band & Coiled Spring Effects’

    • Vehicles passing

    • Vehicles parked

    • Open areas – flat & undulated terrain

    • Large department stores and small shops (entrances and inside)

      • The Store Entrance

      • Inside

      • The Store Exit

      • Small Shops

    • Escalators

    • Elevators

    • Stairways

    • Hotels

      • As a guest

      • As a visitor

        • Drop off nearest to hotel entrance

        • Vehicles to remain as close to the hotel entrance as possible

Chapter 13 (Cont'd)

        • Points to note

        • Boss enters the hotel

        • Boss meets with associate in lobby

    • Designated office buildings

    • Other residences

    • Dinner parties, ‘red carpet’ events & media presence

    • Crossing roads

    • Street corners

    • Subways

    • Tramps & street beggars

    • The Beach

    • Running

      • Route Recce

      • SAP

      • The Event

    • Restaurants

      • Scheduled

      • Unscheduled

    • Nightclubs

    • Accompanying person(s); family members including children, other well known personalities

    • CPT vehicles

    • Walking Formations

      • Textbook Flaws

      • Thinking outside the box

Chapter 14

Use of Close Protection Vehicles

  • Introduction

  • Reasons for a VIP protection driver

  • Reasons for a Back-up vehicle

  • Vehicle selection

    • Area of Use

    • Role of Use

  • Armoured vehicles

    • History

    • Current Standard

    • Principles of vehicle protection

    • The ‘Real World’

    • The Threat versus The Protection

    • European Normalisation Standards (EN)

    • National Institution of Justice (NIJ)

    • European B Standard

    • Run-Flat Tyres

  • ‘Custom’ soft skin vehicles

    • Reinforced windows

    • Tinted windows

      • Current Legislation for Window Tints – The Law

      • Implications for the vehicle owner

    • Disabling vehicles airbags

    • Rear View Mirrors & Vehicle CCTV DVR

    • Ramming Bars

    • Disabling interior lighting

Chapter 15

Advanced Driver Training

  • Knowing your vehicle

    • Vehicle search

    • Immediate area search (IED’s)

    • Under-Vehicle IED’s (UVIED), Trackers & Bugs

  • Police Advanced Driving - ‘Road craft’

    • Standard Response

    • Advanced

  • Observation

  • The Police System of Car Control

  • Close Protection Observation

  • SIA Statement

  • Working with employed chauffeurs

  • Use of door locks

  • Use of seatbelts

  • Use of windows

  • Positioning in the vehicle

 

Chapter 16

Tactical Driving (Protective Mobile Skills)

  • Introduction

  • Reasons for Tactical Driving

  • Stationary & Mobile Positioning

  • Driving for the Boss

  • Driving in Convoy

  • Positioning & Observation

  • Convoy Control

  • Lane Procedures

  • Specific Training for the Theatre of Operation

Chapter 17

Vehicle Embus & Debus

  • Introduction

  • Types of embus/ debus drills

    • Orthodox method

    • Unorthodox method

  • Principles

    • Vehicle positioning (Embus)

    • Vehicle with Manual Gear Shift

    • Vehicle with Automatic Gear Shift

    • PES deployment

    • Escape routes

    • BG positioning

    • Discreet ‘Standby’

    • Sequence of a Debus

  • Sequence of an Embus

  • Embus/ Debus Considerations

    • Event factors

      • Official Engagements

      • Private Engagements

      • Unscheduled Engagements

    • Profile influence

      • Low Profile

      • High Profile

    • SAP

    • Light control

    • Principal control

    • Insecure locations

    • Crowd control

    • Principal’s image

Chapter 17 (Cont'd)

    • Flexibility

    • Vehicle positions

    • PES positions

    • CP Team positions (Secure venue – orthodox debus)

    • CP Team positions (Insecure venue – orthodox debus)

    • CP Team positions (Secure venue – unorthodox debus)

    • CP Team positions (Insecure venue – unorthodox debus)

  • Joint US/ Chinese Government Team Embus Critique, (Ex-President George W Bush)

  • High-Threat Protection Convoy’s

  • Media Embus & Debus

 

Chapter 18

International Travel & Equipment

  • Actions on notice of Intended Travel

    • Schedule

    • Passports

    • 2 Passports

    • Visas

    • Local currency

    • Hotel accommodation

    • Vehicles

    • Team attachments

      • Armoured vehicles

      • Weapons

    • Commercial Flights

  • Clothing & Equipment

  • Operational Kit

Chapter 19

Private Aircraft

  • Passage of information

  • Luggage accountability

  • Counter-Surveillance

  • Heli-moves

 

Chapter 20

Super Yachts, Mega Yachts & Giga Yachts

  • CPT’s Knowledge & Understanding

    • The layout of the ship’s deck

    • The ship’s crew, personalities & responsibilities

    • The security systems installed

    • The ship’s travel and port schedule

  • International Ship Port & Facility Code, (ISPS)

  • Maritime security industry

  • Close Protection on yachts

  • Surveillance Detection

 

Chapter 21

Use of Weapons in CP Training & Operations

  • Close Quarter Battle (CQB)

    • Types of weapons

  • Military & Police Protection Units

    • Difference in operating methods between RMP CP, Police & SAS

    • Attitudes to firearms training

    • Individual qualities for CQB programs

Chapter 21 (Cont'd)

  • Operational Planning for the Area(s) of Deployment/ Operational Environment

    • Weapon sourcing & selection

    • Procedures in ‘difficult’ countries

  • Weapon Concealment, Covert Carriage, Comms and Ancillaries, Bags & Vests

    • Holsters

    • Use of Covert Weapon Bags, Harnesses & Vests

  • The Basic Safety Rules & Fundamentals of CQB

    • The cardinal firearms safety rules

  • Training for the Area(s) of Deployment/ Operational Environment

    • Maximising training effectiveness

    • Advanced applications

      • The aimed shot

      • The instinctive shot

      • Fire & manoeuvre

  • Weapons Use & CP Operations in the United Kingdom

    • Prohibited weapons and ammunition in the United Kingdom

    • Can you conduct pre-deployment weapons training in the UK for operational countries requiring refresher shoots, team drills and tactics?

    • .22lr Rifles

    • Real Action Marker (RAM) Systems

    • Blank firing weapons

  • UK Violent Crime Reduction Act

  • Offensive Weapons

Chapter 21 (Cont'd)

  • UK Law

    • S 141 Criminal Justice Act 1988 (Offensive Weapons) Order 1988

  • Telescopic Truncheon (ASP Baton)

  • Stun Guns

  • CS Spray

  • Rules of Engagement (ROE)

  • Use of Force

  • ROE for the CPT/ PSD

  • Weapons – A Professional Embarrassment

 

Chapter 22

Close Protection Medic Training, Administration & Considerations

  • Medical Training

  • Disclaimers?

  • Advanced Procedure – Chest Drains

  • Casualty Evacuation/ Extraction (CASEVAC)

  • Medical Coverage

  • Reaction to Attack Training

  • Equipment

  • IBG Team Member Illness

  • Vaccinations

Chapter 23

Operational Situational Awareness

  • Operational Planning & Operational Observations

  • Involuntary Attention

  • Voluntary Attention

  • Habitual Attention

  • Interpretation

  • Signs of Danger

  • Ambush

    • Ambush principles

    • Ambush siting

    • Springing the ambush

 

Chapter 24

Surveillance

  • Intrusive Surveillance

  • Skills of a Typical Operator

  • HUMINT

  • Mobile Phones

  • Computers

  • Audio Transmission

    • UHF Transmitters

    • GSM Transmitters

    • GSM ‘Interceptor’ Landline & Room Listening Device

    • UHF Mini Telephone Transmitter

  • Video Transmission

    • GSM 3G Cameras

Chapter 24 (Cont'd)

  • Vehicle Tracking Devices

    • Passive versus active tracking

    • RF (Radio Frequency) trackers

    • GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) Trackers

    • GPS (Global Positioning System) Trackers

  • Electro-Magnetic Radiation

  • Laser Listening Device

  • Near Silent Drill

  • Other Government & Commercial Surveillance Devices

 

Chapter 25

Surveillance Awareness

  • Composition of a Surveillance Team

  • The 5 Main Types of Surveillance

  • Commercial Influence on Surveillance Operations

  • The Pick Up

    • Methods of insertion and types of OP

      • Rural location

      • Urban location

      • Vehicle position

      • Foot position

  • The Follow

    • Communications

    • Target identification

    • Commentary

  • The Housing

  • The CP Mind-set Towards Surveillance

Chapter 26

Countering the Effects of Surveillance

  • Counter Surveillance

  • Anti-Surveillance

  • The Effect of Surveillance on CP Operations

  • The Amount & Manner in which Travel is Conducted by the Boss

    • Vehicle

    • Vehicle information

    • Private Aircraft

    • Private Yacht

  • The Presence and Level of all Residence, Office and Vehicle Security

  • The Security Awareness and Integrity of all Household, Administrative and Associated Staff

  • Operational Procedure by the CPT

    • Web based

    • The Electoral Register

  • Anti/ Counter Surveillance

    • Countering vehicle tracking devices

    • Tracker jammers

    • GPS tracker jammer

    • VHF Lo-Jack tracker jammer

    • Bomb Jammers

    • UHF/ VHF radio & mobile phone jammers

  • Technical Surveillance Counter Measures (TSCM)

    • The threat

    • Oscor 5000E

    • Oscor Blue

    • Oscor Green

Chapter 26 (Cont'd)

    • Orion Non-Liner Junction Detector (NLJD)

    • Searchlight GSM Detector

  • Hostile Activity Detection & Response

    • Counter surveillance team (CST)

    • Options after positively identifying

    • The response

  • Hostile Surveillance Planning Cycle

    • Planning cycle

    • Needs of an attacker

  • Proactive Actions of Anti & Counter Surveillance

 

Chapter 27

Covert Protection Operations: Protective Surveillance, Counter Surveillance and Counter Attack Team

  • Protective Surveillance

    • Surveillance Detection

    • Prior to Embus

    • The Move

    • The Debus

  • Counter Surveillance

  • The Effectiveness of Reaction to Attack (Actual & Perceived)

  • The Counter Attack Team

Chapter 28

Reaction to Attack – An Introduction

  • React to What You See

  • Embus Reaction To Attack Options

  • Debus Reaction To Attack Options

  • Pre-Attack Recognition & Identification Markers

  • Principles of Reaction To Attack

    • Remove or Reduce the Threat

    • Place Assets Between the Threat and the VIP

    • Remove the Principal from the Threat

  • Types of Attack

 

Chapter 29

Reaction to Attack – IBG

  • A Static Action? – You may as Well be a ‘Figure 11 Target’

  • ‘Splitting’ the Targets – Getting off the ‘X’

  • IBG Fire & Manoeuvre

 

Chapter 30

Reaction to Attack – CPT

  • CPT RTA & Extraction Drills

    • The Theory of Body Cover & Evacuate

    • Commercial Mistakes

  • Immediate Action Drills

  • Open Ground

  • Pairs Fire & Manoeuvre

    • Problems

      • Stoppages

      • Secondary threats

      • Killed or injured PES

      • Injured Principal

Chapter 31

Reaction to Attack – Vehicle Anti-Ambush

  • Introduction

  • Principles of Vehicle Anti-Ambush

  • Vehicle Anti-Ambush Drills

    • Response options

  • One Car Drills

    • Drive Through (Gunmen Side)

      • Actions by the driver

      • Actions by the BG

    • Drive Through (Block Front - Gunmen Front)

    • Rapid Block Front/ Gunmen Front

      • Actions by the driver

      • Actions by the BG

    • Block Front – Not immediately confirmed hostile – Beware the decoy

      • Actions by the driver

      • Actions by the BG

    • Block Front and Rear (Gunman threat) – no drive through

  • Two Car Drills

    • Drive Through (Gunmen Side)

    • Drive Through (Block Front - Gunmen Front)

    • Reverse Out (Block Front - Gunmen Front - No Drive Through)

    • Block Front & Rear - No Drive Through

    • Block Front (No Drive Through - Immobilised VIP Vehicle)

Chapter 31 (Cont'd)

    • Vehicle Immobilisation

      • Actions inside the vehicle

      • Actions outside the vehicle

    • Counter Attack Team Drills

    • CAT Going Firm

    • CAT Flanking Attack

    • CAT Attack The Threat(s)

  • Three Car Drills

    • 3-Car Convoy Positions

    • Reverse Out (Block Front - Gunmen Front - No Drive Through)

    • Attacking the Ambush

  • City Congestion

 

Chapter 32

Close Protection Team Leaders

  • Close Protection & Corporate Security - Effective Emergency Decision-Making for the Team Leader/ Security Manager

  • Leadership

Chapter 33

The United Kingdom Security Industry Authority, (SIA) Commercial Close Protection Licensing – A Travesty in the Making and a Warning for the Future

  • The Need For Regulation

  • Licensing Close Protection - SIA Training Core Competencies

  • Accreditation of Prior Learning (APL)

  • A Derogatory Debacle

  • Points to Note

  • The Omissions & Absence of Understanding the Provision of Close Protection

  • SIA Training Limitations

  • The SIA Consultation Process - It Takes Two to Quango

  • The More the SIA Thinks, the More I Think They Shouldn’t Think More

  • Close Protection - Future Regulation and Standards

 
Epilogue